2022 edition available now

Charting pathways to enable net zero

The Hydrogen for Europe study is the result of a cross-sectoral, technology neutral research project charting potential pathways for hydrogen to contribute to the EU’s goal of net zero GHG emissions. Applying innovative and proven modelling, the study supports the realization of EU targets for 2030 and 2050 by assessing which mix of hydrogen technologies can best contribute to the EU’s current and future energy landscape – and what support is needed to enable this.


What’s new

Modelling framework

Now accounts for the impact of a progressive substitution of Russian energy imports, as decided by the EU.

Updated policy targets

Higher renewable energy penetration and renewed relevance of a diversified energy supply strategy.

Methane emissions

Integrates methane footprint of the production, transport and use of natural gas and low-carbon hydrogen in Europe, along the full value chains.

Key findings

Hydrogen’s long-term role is expected to be unaffected by the current energy crisis and the substitution of Russian gas supplies.

A Technology Diversification pathway saves €650 billion in system costs (€40bn/y) on the way to climate neutrality by 2050.

The role of natural gas and low-carbon hydrogen is contingent on secure supplies, best practices in methane emission mitigation, and successful CCS deployment.

Total hydrogen consumption remains at 100 Mt and 25% of the energy mix in 2050 in both pathways.

The share of renewable in final energy consumption goes up to 65-80% depending on the pathway.

With an 80% reduction in methane intensity, using the Best Available Technology (BAT), natural gas can retain a share of 26-19% (442-321 bcm) in the energy mix in 2050.


Hydrogen for Europe explores two pathways for a mix of hydrogen technologies to be deployed across sectors in Europe.
Both pathways meet the EU’s 2030 55% GHG emission reduction and 2050 climate neutrality targets.


Based on approved national targets.

Assumes no obstacles to the deployment of different technologies & accurate market foresight.

Looks at decarbonization technologies that enable a more competitive and cost-efficient energy system.


Prioritizes the use of renewable energy beyond current policy goals.

Hydrogen considered key to help absorb, store, and transport the additional energy resulting from higher renewables generation.

Key data

Total energy system costs are €40 billion per year lower in the Technology Diversification pathway

Total share of renewable energy in the final energy consumption in 2050


750 Mtoe by 2050


853 Mtoe by 2050

Cumulative hydrogen production capacity roll-out from now to 2050



Energy mix by 2050


of total primary energy demand

1,250 GW solar and 1,160 GW wind installed capacity

Solar & wind


of total primary energy demand

1,750 GW solar and 1,500 GW wind installed capacity

Declines to


by 2050


Declines to


by 2050

Sustained role with a


share of primary energy demand  in 2050

442 bcm by 2050

Natural gas

Declining role with a


share of primary energy demand  in 2050

321 bcm by 2050

Hydrogen import potential


of total hydrogen supply in 2050


of total hydrogen supply in 2050

Findings per sector


50 Mt of hydrogen used in 2050, accounting for 40% of the sector’s energy demand


43 Mt of hydrogen used in 2050, accounting for 40% of the sector’s energy demand


2-4 Mt of hydrogen in final energy consumption, up to 3% of market penetration


Peak hydrogen units use 2-3 Mt to generate over 50 TWh, helping integrate renewables and mitigate curtailment and grid congestion



A model that encompasses the entire lifecycle of an energy system from primary resource to utilisation.

Integrate Europe

A model that analyses the impacts of technology learning on the cost-effective transition to an emission-free European Energy system.


provides the MIRET-EU and Integrate Europe model with low-carbon renewable hydrogen imports from neighboring EU countries.

Methane emissions module

calculates the upstream, midstream, and downstream methane footprint of natural gas and all of its products, providing MIRET-EU and HyPE with CO2eq methane emissions of natural gas, LNG and low-carbon hydrogen.